Research Article| Volume 4, ISSUE 1, P42-48, July 1992

Production of experimental staphylococcal impetigo in mice

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      We produced a staphylococcal impetigo model by epicutaneous inoculation in mature mice. A strain isolated from a human impetigo was used. Five-week-old female mice (ddy-strain) were used with and without pre-treatment by cyclophosphamide (Cy) (2 mg/mouse) for 5 days. The back skin of mice was shaved by a razor blade and slightly abraded by sand paper. Bacterial suspension (1.4 × 107 CFU/0.05 ml) was applied on the abraded areas which were then occluded under sterile plastic plaster. Although intraepidermal blisters developed in non-Cy-treated mice, massive neutrophil infiltration obscured the changes there. Development of subcorneal bullae in Cy-treated mice inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus was first observed at 3 h and enlargement of bullae was apparent at 12 h after inoculation. The bullae produced in Cy-treated mice contained numerous S. aureus bacilli. Electronmicroscopically, S. aureus cells invaded the horny layer at Math Eq. A clear halo was seen between S. aureus cells and horny cells. S. aureus cells attached to surrounding horny cells by fibril-like structures. The halo-like spaces became larger, coalesced and then developed into an intraepidermal blister. Our new method to produce human impetigo-like blister in Cy-treated adult mice may contribute to disclosing the mechanisms of blister formation in epidermis by S. aureus. Due to the thin structure of mouse epidermis, only specimens taken earlier than 24 h after inoculation were considered appropriate.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Dermatological Science
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Melish ME
        • Glasgow LA
        The staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome.
        N Engl J Med. 1970; 282: 1114-1119
        • Dajani AS
        • Wannamaker LW
        Experimental infection of the skin in the hamster simulating human impetigo. I. Natural history of the infection.
        J Infect Dis. 1970; 122: 196-204
        • Ushioda H
        • Terayama T
        • Sasaki S
        • Zenyoji H
        • Nishiwaki M
        • Hidano A
        Coagulase typing of Staphylococcus aureus and its application in routine work.
        Abl Bakt Suppl. 1981; 10: 77-83
        • Lever WF
        7th edn. Histopathology of the Skin. JB Lippincott Company, Philadelphia1990: 318-320
        • Ikeda M
        • Arata J
        • Kashiwa N
        Antibiotic effects on bacterial counts in skin lesions of experimental staphylococcal skin infections in the hamster.
        J Dermatol (Tokyo). 1984; 11: 67-72
        • Mehregan AH
        • Hashimoto K
        Vesicular and bullous disease.
        in: Pinkus' Guide to Dermatohistopathology. 5th edn. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Connecticut1991: 157-179
        • Roitt I
        Agents producing general immunosuppression.
        in: Essential Immunology. 7th edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London1991: 286-288
        • Suzuki K
        • Teramoto T
        • Tazawa M
        • Watanabe H
        • Takiuchi I
        Pertial purification and some characteristics of proteinase(s) induced by staphylococcal exfoliative toxin.
        J Dermatol (Tokyo). 1989; 16: 289-295
        • Jeljasewicz J
        • Switalski LM
        • Adlam C
        Staphylocoagulase and clumping factor.
        in: Easmon CSF Adlam C. Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections: 2. Academic Press, London1983: 525-557
        • Falcieri E
        • Vaudaux P
        • Huggler E
        • Lew D
        • Waldvogel F
        Role of bacterial exopolymers and host factors on adherence and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus in foreign body infection.
        J Infect Dis. 1987; 155: 524-531
        • Cheung AL
        • Krishnan M
        • Jaffe EA
        • Fischetti VA
        Fibrinogen acts as a bridging molecule in the adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to cultured human endothelial cells.
        J Clin Invest. 1991; 87: 2236-2245
        • Kuusela P
        • Vartio T
        • Vuento M
        • Myhare EB
        Attachment of Staphylococci and Streptococci on fibronectin, fibronectin fragments, and fibrinogen bound to a solid phase.
        Infect Immun. 1985; 50: 77-81
        • Maxe I
        • Ryden C
        • Wadstorm T
        • Rubin K
        Specific attachment of Staphylococcus aureus to immobilized fibronectin.
        Infect Immun. 1986; 54: 695-704
        • Chhatwal GS
        • Preissener KT
        • Berghaus GM
        • Blobel H
        Specific binding of the human S protein (vitronectin) to Staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli.
        Infect Immun. 1987; 55: 1878-1883
        • Naidu AS
        • Miedzobrodzki J
        • Musser JM
        • Rosdahl VT
        • Hedström SA
        • Forsgren A
        Human lactoferrin binding in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.
        J Med Microbiol. 1991; 34: 323-328