Research Article| Volume 7, ISSUE 3, P176-184, June 1994

Effects of a new psoralen, 5-geranoxypsoralen, plus UVA radiation on murine ATPase positive langerhans cells

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      5-geranoxypsoralen (5-GOP), commonly called bergamottin, is a highly photoreactive psoralen, which in contrast to most furocoumarins, does not strongly interact with DNA. 5-GOP gives the opportunity to study, in a more selective way, the mechanisms of phototoxic and immunological activities induced by psoralen and UVA radiation. We investigated the effects of repetitive treatments with 5-GOP plus UVA radiation (320–400 nm) on the number of ATPase+ epidermal Langerhans cells and on the induction of photoreactivity. These effects were compared with those of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) or 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) plus UVA radiation and UVA radiation alone. Math Eq mice were treated topically with the psoralen three times/week for 4 consecutive weeks followed each time by 1 J/cm2 of UVA radiation. At the end of the treatment, mice treated with 8-MOP or 5-MOP plus UVA radiation exhibited severe gross phototoxicity and nearly total depletion of ATPase-stained Langerhans cells. Both treatments produced severe morphological alterations of Langerhans cells. No gross but a microscopic phototoxic effect was observed after 5-GOP plus UVA radiation treatment, while the number of ATPase+ Langerhans cells was also greatly reduced. Interestingly the latter treatment induced no morphological alterations of the remaining Langerhans cells in contrast to treatment with 8-MOP or 5-MOP plus UVA radiation. We conclude that phototoxicity and decrease in the number of ATPase-stained epidermal immune cells observed after treatment with 5-GOP plus UVA radiation are not related to the DNA binding activity of the psoralen. A second type of photoreaction which is oxygen mediated may be involved.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Dermatological Science
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Alcalay J
        • Bucana C
        • Kripke ML
        Effect of psoralen and ultraviolet radiation on murine dendritic epidermal cells.
        J Invest Dermatol. 1989; 92: 657-662
        • Aubin F
        • Dall'Acqua F
        • Kripke ML
        Local suppression of contact hypersensitivity in mice by a new bifunctional psoralen, 4,4′,5′-trimethylazapsoralen, and UVA radiation.
        J Invest Dermatol. 1991; 97: 50-54
        • Pathak MA
        Mechanisms of psoralen photosensitization reactions.
        Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1984; 66: 41-46
        • Morlière P
        • Bazin M
        • Dubertret L
        • Santus R
        • Sa E
        • Melo T
        • Hüppe G
        • Haigle J
        • Forlot P
        • Bernard A
        Photoreactivity of 5-geranoxypsoralen and lack of photoreaction with DNA.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1991; 53: 13-19
        • Ashwood-Smith MJ
        • Ceska O
        • Warrington PJ
        • Morris TP
        • Altamirano M
        The photobiological activity of 5-geranoxypsoralen and its photoproducts.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1992; 55: 529-532
        • Mackenzie IC
        • Squier CA
        Cytochemical identification of ATPase-positive Langerhans cells in EDTA-separated sheets of mouse epidermis.
        Br J Dermatol. 1975; 92: 523-531
        • Azizi E
        • Bucana C
        • Goldberg L
        • Kripke ML
        Pertubation of epidermal Langerhans cells in basal cell carcinomas.
        Am J Dermatopathol. 1987; 9: 465-473
        • Ullrich SE
        • Alcalay J
        • Applegate LA
        • Kripke ML
        Immunosuppression in phototherapy.
        in: Photosensitizing Compounds: their Chemistry, Biology, and Clinical Use. Ciba Foundation Symposium 146. 1989: 131-147 (Chichester, UK)
        • Morlière P
        • Hüppe G
        • Averbeck D
        • Young AR
        • Santus R
        • Dubertret L
        In vitro photostability and photosensitizing properties of berganot oil. Effect of cinnamate sunscreen.
        J Photochem Photobiol B. 1990; 7: 199-208
        • Cieri UR
        Characterization of the steam non-volatile residue of bergamot oil and some other essential oils.
        J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1969; 52: 719-728
        • Zaynoun ST
        • Johnson BE
        • Frain-Bell W
        A study of oil of bergamot and its importance as a phototoxic agent. I: Characterization and quantification of the photoreactive component.
        Br J Dermatol. 1977; 96: 475-782
        • Pathak MA
        in: Pathak MA Harber LA Seiji M Kukita A Sunlight and Man: Normal and Abnormal Photobiologic Responses. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo1974: 495-513
        • Marzulli FN
        • Maibach HI
        Perfume phototoxicity.
        J Soc Cosmet Chem. 1970; 21: 695-715
        • Laskin JD
        • Lee E
        • Yurkow EJ
        • Laskin DL
        • Gallo MA
        A possible mechanism of psoralen phototoxicity not involving direct interaction with DNA.
        in: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 82. 1985: 6158-6162
        • Midden WR
        Chemical mechanism of the bioeffects of furocoumarins: the role of reactions with proteins, lipids and other cellular constituents.
        in: Gasparo FP Psoralen, DNA, Photobiology. Vol. II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida1988: 1-49
        • De Mol NJ
        • Beijersbergen Van Henegouwen MJ
        Relation between some photobiological properties of furocoumarins and their extent of singlet oxygen production.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1981; 33: 815-819
        • Blan QA
        • Grossweiner LI
        Singlet oxygen generation by furocoumarins: effect of DNA and liposomes.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1987; 45: 177-183
        • Averbeck D
        Recent advances in psoralen phototoxicity mechanisms.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1989; 50: 859-882
        • Aubin F
        • Alcalay J.
        • Dall'Acqua F
        • Kripke ML
        Effects of a new bifunctional psoralen, 4,4′,5′-trimethylazapsoralen and ultraviolet A radiation on murine dendritic epidermal cells.
        Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1990; 7: 123-127
        • Vedaldi D
        • Dall'Acqua F
        • Caffieri S
        • Baccicheti F
        • Carlassare F
        • Bordin F
        • Chilin A
        • Guitto A
        4,4′,5′-trimethyl-8-azapsoralen, a new photoreactive and non-skin-phototoxic bifunctional bioisoster of psoralen.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1991; 53: 143-148
        • Averbeck D
        Relationship between lesions photoinduced by mono- and bi-functional furocoumarins in DNA and genotoxic effects in diploid yeast.
        Mut Res. 1985; 151: 217-233
        • Rodighiero GF
        • Dall'Acqua F
        • Averbeck D
        New psoralen and angelicin derivatives.
        in: Gasparo FP Psoralen, DNA, Photobiology. Vol. II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida1988: 37-114