Effects of UV irradiation on the sebaceous gland and sebum secretion in hamsters


      Background: Although an understanding of the photobiology of the skin has been extensively advanced recently, the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on sebaceous glands is not well known. Objective: In this study, we examined the direct effect of UV radiation on cultured sebocytes from hamsters in vitro experimental system. Moreover, we examined whether UV-induced peroxidation of skin surface lipids may affect barrier function of horney layer. Methods: We irradiated cultured sebocytes from hamsters, which have similar biological characteristics to the human sebocytes, with UV radiation. Moreover, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was examined after topical application of cholesterol or triglyceride (TG) and UV exposures on the back of hamsters. Results: The number of sebocytes were increased significantly (120–140%) after 4 days as compared with the non-irradiated controls. Lipid production in sebocytes was also increased on day 7 in an irradiation-dependent manner up to 4.1 times of the pre-irradiated level. When UVB was irradiated to TG- or cholesterol-applied skin at the minimum ear-swelling dose, TEWL increased twice or more as compared with UVB irradiation to unapplied sites. When in vitro-irradiated TG, in vitro-irradiated cholesterol, TG-peroxide (TG-OOH), and cholesterol-peroxide (CHO-OOH) were applied to the skin, TEWL increased significantly. Conclusion: These results suggest that UVB may directly activate the functions of the sebaceous gland in vivo to produce increased amounts of sebum, which may undergo peroxidation by UV light and damage the barrier functions of the skin.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Dermatological Science
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Gilchrest B.A.
        • Stoff J.F.
        • Soter N.A.
        Chronologic aging alters the response to UV-induced inflammation in human skin.
        J. Invest. Dermatol. 1982; 79: 11-15
        • Danno K.
        • Horio T.
        • Takigawa M.
        • Imamura S.
        Role of oxygen intermediates in UV-induced epidermal cell injury.
        J. Invest. Dermatol. 1984; 83: 166-168
        • Epstein J.H.
        • Fukuyama K.
        • Fye K.
        Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the mitotic cycle and DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis in mammalian epidermis in vivo.
        Photochem. Photobiol. 1970; 12: 57-65
        • Kupper T.S.
        Mechanisms of cutaneous inflammation. Interactions between epidermal cytokines, adhesion molecules, and leukocytes.
        Arch. Dermatol. 1989; 125: 1406-1412
        • Lesnik R.H.
        • Kligman L.H.
        • Kligman A.M.
        Agents that cause enlargement of sebaceous glands in hairless mice. II. Ultraviolet radiation.
        Arch. Dermatol. Res. 1992; 284: 106-108
        • Dachs U.
        • Plewig G.
        Effecte des UV-Lichtes auf Hautadnexe am Beispiel des Syrischen Hamsters.
        Hautartzt. 1977; 28: 237-238
        • Gloor M.
        • Karenfeld A.
        Effect of ultraviolet light therapy, given over a period of several weeks, on the amount and composition of the skin surface lipids.
        Dermatologica. 1977; 154: 5-13
        • Weissman A.
        • Noble W.C.
        Photochemotherapy of psoriasis.
        Br. J. Dermatol. 1980; 102: 185-193
        • Plewig G.
        • Luderschmidt C.
        Hamster ear model for sebaceous glands.
        J. Invest. Dermatol. 1977; 68: 171-176
        • Ito A.
        • Sakiguchi T.
        • Kitamura K.
        • Akamatsu H.
        • Horio T.
        Establishment of a tissue culture system for hamster sebaceous gland cells.
        Dermatology. 1998; 197: 238-244
        • Sato T.
        • Imai N.
        • Akimoto N.
        • Sakiguchi T.
        • Kitamura K.
        • Ito A.
        Epidermal growth factor and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppress lipogenesis in hamster sebaceous gland cells in vitro.
        J. Invest. Dermatol. 2001; 117: 965-970
        • Rheinwald J.G.
        • Green H.
        Serial cultivation of strains of human epidermal keratinocytes: the formation of keratinizing colonies from single cells.
        Cell. 1975; 6: 331-344
        • Zouboulis Ch.C.
        • Korge B.
        • Akamatsu H.
        • Xia L.
        • Schiller S.
        • Gollnick H.
        • Orfanos C.E.
        Effects of 13-cis-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinoic acid, and acitretin on the proliferation, lipid synthesis, and keratin expression of cultured human sebocytes in vitro.
        J. Invest. Dermatol. 1991; 96: 792-797
        • Ito A.
        • Kitamura K.
        • Sato K.
        • Akamatsu H.
        A novel enzymatic assay for the quantification of skin surface lipids.
        J. Int. Med. Res. 1996; 24: 69-83
        • Akamatsu H.
        • Zouboulis Ch.C.
        • Orfanos C.E.
        Control of human sebocyte proliferation in vitro by testosterone and 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone is dependent on the localization of the sebaceous glands.
        J. Invest. Dermatol. 1992; 99: 509-511
        • Zouboulis Ch.C.
        • Akamatsu H.
        • Stephanek K.
        • Orfanos C.E.
        Androgens affect the activity of human sebocytes in culture in a manner dependent on the localization of the sebaceous glands and their effect is antagonized by spironolactone.
        Skin Pharmacol. 1994; 7: 33-40
        • Akamatsu H.
        • Zouboulis Ch.C.
        • Orfanos C.E.
        Spironolactone directly inhibits proliferation of cultured human facial sebocytes and acts antagonistically to testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone in vitro.
        J. Invest. Dermatol. 1993; 100: 660-662
        • Ebling F.J.
        • Ebling E.
        • McCaffery V.
        • Skinner J.
        The response of the sebaceous glands of the hypophysectomized-castrated male rat to 5-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androsterone.
        J. Endocrinol. 1971; 51: 181-190
        • Ebling F.J.
        • Ebling E.
        • McCaffery V.
        • Skinner J.
        The responses of the sebaceous glands of the hypophysectomized-castrated male rat to 5-androstanedione and 5-androstane-3,17-diol.
        J. Invest. Dermatol. 1973; 60: 183-187
        • Thody A.J.
        • Cooper M.F.
        • Bowden P.E.
        • Meddis D.
        • Shuster S.
        Effect of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and testosterone on cutaneous and modified sebaceous glands in the rat.
        J. Endocrinol. 1976; 71: 279-288
        • Sauter L.S.
        • Loud A.V.
        Morphometric evaluation of sebaceous gland volume in intact, castrated, and testosterone-treated rats.
        J. Invest. Dermatol. 1975; 64: 9-13
        • Burgess T.L.
        • Wilson J.D.
        Studies on hormonal regulation of squalene synthesis in preputial gland and skin of the rat.
        Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1963; 113: 747-750
        • Sansone G.
        • Davidson W.
        • Cummings B.
        • Reisner R.M.
        Sebaceous gland lipogenesis induced by testosterone: early metabolic events.
        J. Invest. Dermatol. 1971; 57: 144-148
        • Cunliffe W.J.
        Treatment of acne.
        in: Marks R. Acne. Martin Dunitz, UK1989: 252-287
        • Hjorth N.
        • Sjolin K.E.
        • Sylvest B.
        • Thomsen K.
        Acne aestivalis–Mallorca acne.
        Acta Derm. Venereol. 1972; 52: 61-63
        • Jones C.
        • Bleehen S.S.
        Acne induced by PUVA treatment.
        Br. Med. J. 1977; 2: 866
        • Motohashi K.
        Enhanced comedo formation in rabbit ear skin by squalene and oleic acid peroxides.
        Br. J. Dermatol. 1983; 109: 191-198
        • Mills O.H.
        • Kligman A.M.
        Ultraviolet phototherapy and photochemotherapy of acne vulgaris.
        Arch. Dermatol. 1978; 114: 221-223
        • Pochi P.E.
        Sebum: its nature and physiopathologic responses.
        in: Moschella S.L. Hurley H.J. Dermatology. 3rd ed. Saunders, USA1992: 88-93
        • Chiba K.
        • Sone T.
        • Kawakami K.
        • Onoue M.
        Skin roughness and wrinkle formation induced by repeated application of squalene-monohydroperoxide to the hairless mouse.
        Exp. Dermatol. 1999; 8: 471-479
        • Mills O.H.
        • Porte M.
        • Kligman A.M.
        Enhancement of comedogenic substances by ultraviolet radiation.
        Br. J. Dermatol. 1978; 98: 145-150
        • Yamazaki S.
        • Ozawa N.
        • Hiratsuka A.
        • Watabe T.
        Cholesterol 7-hydroperoxides in rat skin as a marker for lipid peroxidation.
        Biochem. Pharmacol. 1999; 58: 1415-1423
        • Yamazaki S.
        • Ozawa N.
        • Hiratsuka A.
        • Watabe T.
        Increases in cholesterol 7-hydroperoxides in lipids of human skin by sunlight exposure.
        Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1999; 26: 1126-1133
        • Tegner E.
        Seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face induced by PUVA treatment.
        Acta Derm. Venereol. (Stockholm). 1983; 63: 335-339
        • Nishioka K.
        Seborrhoeic dermatitis.
        in: Ikeda S. Standard Text Book of Dermatology. 5th ed. Igaku-syoin, Tokyo1997: 104-105 (in Japanese)
        • Holleran W.M.
        • Uchida Y.
        • Halkier-Sorensen L.
        • Haratake A.
        • Hara M.
        • Epstain J.H.
        • Elias P.M.
        Structural and biochemical basis for the UVB-induced alterations in epidermal barrier function.
        Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 1997; 13: 117-128