The best method to reduce skin cancer risk is preventing intensive sunlight exposure through lifestyle modification (protective clothing, avoidance) and sunscreen application. However, many individuals do not follow these measures and become sunburned. Unfortunately, sunscreens are not effective once damage has occurred [
]. Compounds that reverse skin trauma after UV exposure are therefore necessary to supplement sunscreen use, as a second line of defense. A post-exposure product should reduce DNA damage [
- Stege H.
- Roza L.
- Vink A.A.
- et al.
Enzyme plus light therapy to repair DNA damage in ultraviolet-B-irradiated human skin.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000; 97: 1790-1795
], inflammation and immune suppression [
- Ouhtit A.
- Muller H.K.
- Davis D.W.
- et al.
Temporal events in skin injury and the early adaptive responses in ultraviolet-irradiated mouse skin.
Am J Pathol. 2000; 156: 201-207
], as well as prevent alterations in intercellular adhesion proteins, such as E-cadherin, which disrupt skin homeostasis and are associated with skin cancer development and progression [
- Clydesdale G.J.
- Dandie G.W.
- Muller H.K.
Ultraviolet light induced injury: immunological and inflammatory effects.
Immunol Cell Biol. 2001; 79: 547-568
- Hung C.F.
- Chiang H.S.
- Lo H.M.
- et al.
E-cadherin and its downstream catenins are proteolytically cleaved in human HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to UVB.
Exp Dermatol. 2006; 15: 315-321
- Johnson J.P.
Cell adhesion molecules in the development and progression of malignant melanoma.
Cancer Metast Rev. 1999; 18: 345-357
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- Enzyme plus light therapy to repair DNA damage in ultraviolet-B-irradiated human skin.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000; 97: 1790-1795
- Temporal events in skin injury and the early adaptive responses in ultraviolet-irradiated mouse skin.Am J Pathol. 2000; 156: 201-207
- Ultraviolet light induced injury: immunological and inflammatory effects.Immunol Cell Biol. 2001; 79: 547-568
- E-cadherin and its downstream catenins are proteolytically cleaved in human HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to UVB.Exp Dermatol. 2006; 15: 315-321
- Cell adhesion molecules in the development and progression of malignant melanoma.Cancer Metast Rev. 1999; 18: 345-357
- Isoflavone genistein: photoprotection and clinical implications in dermatology.J Nutr. 2003; 133: 3811S-3819S
- Mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by soy isoflavone genistein.Cancer Metast Rev. 2002; 21: 265-280
- Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord. 2003; 3: 234-242
- Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea polyphenols.J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001; 44: 425-432
- Protective effect of sanguinarine on ultraviolet B-mediated damages in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin: implications for prevention of skin cancer.Photochem Photobiol. 2007; 83: 986-993
Published online: July 12, 2010
Received: July 2, 2007
© 2008 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.