Analysis of Trichophyton antigen-induced contact hypersensitivity in mouse



      Trichophyton-induced superficial skin mycosis is a common infectious human disease, but the immunological mechanism against Trichophyton infection is unclear with regard to many points. Since Trichophyton cannot colonize mice, guinea pigs were used in previous experiments on Trichophyton infection. However, it is difficult to perform immunological and genetic analyses in guinea pigs.


      The objective of this study was to establish a mouse Trichophytin-associated inflammation model of superficial skin mycosis in which immunological and genetic analyses can be performed.


      We established a mouse Trichophyton-induced contact hypersensitivity model by applying Trichophytin, the Trichophyton antigen, extracted from Trichophyton mentagrophytes, to mice. Using a Th1-dominant strain, C57BL/6, and a Th2-dominant strain, BALB/c, we investigated the expression of inflammatory cytokines and receptors of the innate immune system for fungi, TLR4, TLR2, and dectin-1, and their influences on responses of the acquired immune system.


      In C57BL/6 mice, expressions of IFN-γ and IL-17 A in regional lymph nodes and IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-23 in the inflammatory auricular skin were enhanced by Trichophytin challenge, suggesting that not only Th1 cells but also Th17 cells were induced. In BALB/c mice, expressions of IL-4 in regional lymph nodes, and TSLP and IL-4 in the auricular skin were enhanced by Trichophytin challenge. Interestingly, dectin-1-neutralizing antibody inhibited the promotion of IFN-γ production in C57BL/6 mice, and dectin-1-expressing immune cells had crucial actions in Trichophyton-induced IFN-γ production.


      These results suggest that inflammatory mediators differently regulate Trichophytin-induced contact hypersensitivity on the basis of the status of host immunity.


      ACD (allergic contact dermatitis), CHS (contact hypersensitivity), CLN (cervical lymph node), LPS (lipopolysaccharide), PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cell), pDC (plasmacytoid dendritic cell), TLRs (Toll-like receptors), TSLP (thymic stromal lymphopoietin)


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