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Epidemiological evidence that indoor air pollution from cooking with solid fuels accelerates skin aging in Chinese women

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Equal contribution to this work.
    Miaozhu Li
    Footnotes
    1 Equal contribution to this work.
    Affiliations
    IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany

    Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences–Max Planck Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Shanghai, China

    China Medical City Institute of Health Sciences, Taizhou, China

    Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Equal contribution to this work.
    Andrea Vierkötter
    Footnotes
    1 Equal contribution to this work.
    Affiliations
    IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Equal contribution to this work.
    Tamara Schikowski
    Footnotes
    1 Equal contribution to this work.
    Affiliations
    IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany

    Swiss Tropical Institute of Public Health, Basel, Switzerland

    University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
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  • Anke Hüls
    Affiliations
    IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany
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  • Anan Ding
    Affiliations
    Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences–Max Planck Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Shanghai, China

    China Medical City Institute of Health Sciences, Taizhou, China

    Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
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  • Mary S. Matsui
    Affiliations
    The Estee Lauder Companies Inc, Melville, NY, United States
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  • Binwei Deng
    Affiliations
    The Estee Lauder Companies Inc, Shanghai, China
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  • Chuan Ma
    Affiliations
    Department of Dermatology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China
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  • Aiguo Ren
    Affiliations
    Institute of Reproductive & Child Health/Ministry of Health Key Laboratory of Reproductive and Child Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China
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  • Juan Zhang
    Affiliations
    China Medical City Institute of Health Sciences, Taizhou, China

    Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
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  • Jingze Tan
    Affiliations
    China Medical City Institute of Health Sciences, Taizhou, China

    Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
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  • Yajun Yang
    Affiliations
    China Medical City Institute of Health Sciences, Taizhou, China

    Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
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  • Li Jin
    Affiliations
    Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences–Max Planck Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Shanghai, China

    China Medical City Institute of Health Sciences, Taizhou, China

    Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Equal contribution to this work.
    Jean Krutmann
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 211 3389 225.
    Footnotes
    1 Equal contribution to this work.
    Affiliations
    IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Equal contribution to this work.
    Zhiwen Li
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 10 8280 1169.
    Footnotes
    1 Equal contribution to this work.
    Affiliations
    Institute of Reproductive & Child Health/Ministry of Health Key Laboratory of Reproductive and Child Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Equal contribution to this work.
    Sijia Wang
    Correspondence
    Correspondence to Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, 320 Yue Yang Road, Shanghai 200031, China. Tel.: +86 21 5492 0559.
    Footnotes
    1 Equal contribution to this work.
    Affiliations
    Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences–Max Planck Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Shanghai, China

    China Medical City Institute of Health Sciences, Taizhou, China

    Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Equal contribution to this work.

      Highlights

      • Indoor air pollution is a major public health challenge in China.
      • Cooking with solid fuels is one main source of indoor air pollution in China.
      • Cooking with solid fuels accelerates wrinkle rates in Chinese women.
      • Corroborates known association between outdoor air pollution and skin aging.
      • Indoor air pollution might be a further risk factor for skin aging.

      Abstract

      Background

      Recently, we showed that outdoor air pollution exposure from traffic and industry is associated with an increased risk of skin aging in Caucasian women. In China, indoor air pollution exposure caused by the use of solid fuels like coal is a major health problem and might also increase the risk of skin aging in Chinese women.

      Objective

      As cooking with solid fuels is a major source of indoor air pollution exposure in China, we aimed to test if cooking with solid fuels is associated with more pronounced skin aging in Chinese women.

      Methods

      We conducted two cross-sectional studies in China to assess the association between cooking with solid fuels and signs of skin aging. In Pingding (in northern China) we assessed N = 405 and in Taizhou (in southern China) N = 857 women between 30 and 90 years of age. Skin aging was evaluated by the SCINEXA™ score. Indoor air pollution exposure, sun exposure, smoking and other confounders were assessed by questionnaires. Associations were then tested by linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for further confounders.

      Results

      The analysis showed that cooking with solid fuels was significantly associated with a 5–8% more severe wrinkle appearance on face and an 74% increased risk of having fine wrinkles on back of hands in both studies combined, independent of age and other influences on skin aging.

      Conclusion

      The present studies thus corroborate our previous finding that air pollution is associated with skin aging and extend it by showing that indoor air pollution might be another risk factor for skin aging.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      AhR (arylhydrocarbon receptor), AM (arithmetic mean), AMR (arithmetic mean ratio), BMI (Body mass index), CI (confidence interval), GM (geometric mean), GMR (geometric mean ratio), MMP (matrixmetalloproteinase), OR (odds ratio), PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon), PM (particulate matter), SCINEXA™ (Score for intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging), TGF-ß (transforming growth factor ß)
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