- •Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) degradation is significantly reduced in photoaged fibroblasts compared to non-photoaged fibroblasts.
- •The activity and expression of cathepsin D is significantly decreased in photoaged fibroblasts compared to non-photoaged fibroblasts.
- •Inhibiting Cathepsin D activity decreases AGEs degradation; whereas Cathepsin D overexpression significantly increases AGEs degradation.
- •AGEs accumulation in photo-damaged skin in vivo is inversely correlated with CatD expression.
- •Cathepsin D plays a major role in intracellular AGEs degradation, which may contribute to accelerated AGEs deposition in photoaged skin.
The deposition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is accelerated in photoaged skin, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Intracellular degradation has been recently considered to play an important role in AGEs removal. Although lysosomal cathepsin D (CatD), B (CatB), L(CatL) and proteasomes are found to degrade internalized AGEs, it remains unknown which protease degrades internalized AGEs in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), and whether a decrease in intracellular degradation contributes to enhanced AGEs deposition in photoaged skin.
This study aims to investigate the specific proteases that contribute to intracellular AGEs degradation in HDFs and regulate AGEs accumulation in photoaged skin.
Repetitive UVA irradiation was used to induce primary HDF photoaging in vitro. Uptake and degradation of AGE-BSA were verified and compared between photoaged and non-photoaged fibroblasts with flow cytometry, ELISA and confocal microscopy. Proteasomal and lysosomal activity, expression of CatD, CatB and CatL were also investigated between photoaged and non-photoaged fibroblasts. Further, the effect of protease inhibitors and CatD overexpression via lentiviral transduction on AGE-BSA degradation was analyzed. Finally, the correlation between CatD expression and AGEs accumulation in sun-exposed and sun-protected skin of people from different age was studied with immunohistochemistry.
Fibroblasts underwent photoaging in vitro after repetitive UVA irradiation. AGE-BSA was taken up by both photoaged and non-photoaged fibroblasts, but its degradation was significantly decreased in photoaged cells than that of non-photoaged cells. Although the activity of proteasome, CatB, Cat L and Cat D was significantly reduced in photoaged fibroblasts compared to that of non-photoaged cells, and the expression of CatB, CatL and CatD was profoundly attenuated in photoaged fibroblasts, inhibiting proteasome, CatB and CatL did not affect AGE-BSA degradation in HDFs. In contrast, inhibiting CatD activity dose-dependently decreased AGE-BSA degradation; whereas CatD overexpression significantly increased AGE-BSA degradation. Importantly, AGEs accumulation in photo-damaged skin in vivo was inversely correlated with CatD expression.
CatD plays a major role in intracellular AGEs degradation. Decreased CatD expression and activity impairs intracellular AGEs degradation in photoaged fibroblasts, which may contribute to accelerated AGEs deposition in photoaged skin. The present study provides a potentially novel molecular basis for antiphotoaging therapy.
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Published online: February 19, 2018
Accepted: February 14, 2018
Received in revised form: January 1, 2018
Received: May 14, 2017
© 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.