- •Exposure to glyoxal aggravated the symptoms in AD rats, but did not induce AD in naïve rats.
- •S. aureus skin colonization and subsequent expression of antimicrobial peptides were increased after exposure to glyoxal.
- •Exposure to glyoxal elevated the production of Th1-related cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ in the AD lesional skin.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a highly pruritic, chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with hyperreactivity to environmental triggers. Among those, outdoor air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) have been reported to aggravate pre-existing AD. However, underlying mechanisms of air pollution-induced aggravation of AD have hardly been studied.
To investigate the molecular mechanisms by which glyoxal, a PM-forming organic compound, exacerbates the symptoms of AD induced by neonatal capsaicin treatment.
Naïve and AD rats had been exposed to either fresh air or vaporized glyoxal for 5 weeks (2 h/day and 5 days/week) since one week of age. Pruritus and dermatitis were measured every week. The skin and blood were collected and immunological traits such as Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization, production of antimicrobial peptides and immunoglobulin, and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines were analyzed.
Exposure to glyoxal aggravated pruritus and dermatitis in AD rats, but did not induce any symptoms in naïve rats. Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization was increased in the skin of both naïve and AD rats. Expression of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37 and β-defensin-2 was also increased by exposure to glyoxal in the skin of both naïve and AD rats. The mRNA expression of Th1-related cytokines was elevated on exposure to glyoxal. However, serum immunoglobulin production was not significantly changed by exposure to glyoxal.
In AD rats, exposure to glyoxal exacerbated pruritus and cutaneous inflammation, which was associated with increased colonization of S. aureus and subsequent immunological alterations in the skin.
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Published online: February 20, 2018
Accepted: February 15, 2018
Received in revised form: February 6, 2018
Received: November 8, 2017
© 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.